Glucosamine is the single most important substance in the synthesis of connective tissue and cartilage. A shortage of cartilage can cause painful joint movement. Glucosamine is an important building block of many GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), which are molecules that form the matrix of cartilage. It is derived from chitin, a substance which gives strength to the exoskeleton of crabs, lobsters, insects, and spiders.
Collagens are a big family of proteins and represent around 25% of total proteins in mammals, including the main protein that forms the connective tissue in all higher animals. Connective tissue contains a mixture of cells, proteins, complex polysaccharides, and inorganic constituents. Collagen, like elastine and proteoglycans, is located in the extracellular matrix. The function of collagen is to give strength and flexibility to the connective tissue. Scientific studies have proven that human cartilage is made up of approx. 60% collagen type II, 15% glucosamine, 15% chondroiton sulfate, and water.
MSM (methyl-sulfonyl-methane) is a pure, organic, nontoxic, nonmetallic element that occurs widely in nature. MSM is a metabolite of the compound dimethysulfoxide, and by weight is 34% elemental sulfur, making it one of the richest sources of sulfur. MSM has been shown to be completely nontoxic in study after study, even in high dosages. In mammals storehouses of MSM decrease with age, possibly due to a changing diet or body metabolism, which is why supplementing your diet with MSM can be so effective.*
STUDIES (More can be found at the NCBI site, PubMed)
- Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC. Glucosamine Sulfate Use and Delay of Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis: A 3-Year, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-blind Study. Institute of Rheumatology, Na Slupi 4, 128 50 Praha 2, Czech Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org
Synopsis: Long-term treatment with glucosamine sulfate retarded the progression of knee osteoarthritis, possibly determining disease modification.
- Mobasheri A, Vannucci SJ, Bondy CA, Carter SD, Innes JF, Arteaga MF, Trujillo E, Ferraz I, Shakibaei M, Martin-Vasallo P. Glucose transport and metabolism in chondrocytes: a key to understanding chondrogenesis, skeletal development and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Connective Tissue Research Group, Musculoskeletal Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. email@example.com
Synopsis: Sugggests that degeneration of cartilage may be triggered by metabolic disorders of glucose balance and that osteoarthritis occurs coincident with metabolic disease, endocrine dysfunction and diabetes mellitus.
- Oegema TR Jr, Deloria LB, Sandy JD, Hart DA. Effect of oral glucosamine on cartilage and meniscus in normal and chymopapain-injected knees of young rabbits. Arthritis Rheum 2002 Sep;46(9):2495-503 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Synopsis: These results suggest that oral glucosamine treatment might be useful in a situation where glucosamine is limiting, such as where there is a rapid replacement of cartilage proteoglycan.
- Vad V, Hong HM, Zazzali M, Agi N, Basrai D. Exercise recommendations in athletes with early osteoarthritis of the knee. Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
Synopsis: Medical management of knee osteoarthritis within the framework of a progressive rehabilitation program that includes active therapeutic exercise may delay the progression of this disease and allow patients years of greater pain-free activity and improved quality of life.
- Matyas JR, Huang D, Chung M, Adams ME. Regional quantification of cartilage type II collagen and aggrecan messenger RNA in joints with early experimental osteoarthritis. Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, McCaig Centre for Joint Injury and Arthritis Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Synopsis: Exploring the anabolic metabolism of chondrocytes early in the natural history of an experimental canine model of osteoarthritis.
- Silver FH, Horvath I, Foran DJ. Mechanical implications of the domain structure of fiber-forming collagens: comparison of the molecular and fibrillar flexibilities of the alpha1-chains found in types I-III collagen. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854. USA. email@example.com
Synopsis: Studies the function of fibers rich in collagen and their effect on elastic energy.
- Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. American Institute for Biosocial and Medical Research (AIBMR), Tacoma, WA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Synopsis: Because the role of elemental sulfur in human nutrition has not been studied extensively, it is the purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of sulfur in humans and discuss the therapeutic applications of sulfur compounds in medicine.
- Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. GENESIS Center for Integrative Medicine, Graham, WA, USA.
Synopsis: The results of this study suggest that MSM supplementation of 2,600 mg/day for 30 days may be efficacious in the reduction of symptoms associated with rhinitis.