There's no such thing as soy milk. It's soy juice.
Magic Bean or Tragic Bean? A Closer Look at SoyBy Denis Faye
This just in: Soy prevents cancer. Soy lowers "bad" cholesterol. Soy prevents osteoporosis. Hooray! Bring on the tofu!
Wait! More breaking news: Soy suppresses thyroid function. Soy hinders testosterone. Soy causes cancer. Oh no! Looks like it's back to beef burgers for me.
Welcome to the food wars. On one side, big business tells us what to eat. On the other side, watchdog groups tell us we're being poisoned. From the wings, the media screams about the battle at the top of its lungs. In the middle stands our poor diet, constantly scrutinized. Sooner or later, everything we eat is either branded the next superfood fad or the devil incarnate. Every now and then, a food comes along that gets to be both. Ladies and gentlemen, I give you soy.
Then and now
The soybean, which comes from East Asia, made its way to the United States in 1804. Through the 1930s, its primary use was as livestock feed. But in the last seventy years, things have changed. America is now the world's foremost soybean producer and, from an economical standpoint, soybeans are one of the world's most important legumes.
In much the same way one of America's other big crops, corn, has found its way into just about every packaged food in the country in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, the food industry has come up with all kinds of inventive uses for soy. It's used to make paints, glues, bug sprays, and food. And we're not just talking tofu here. From soy milk to cereals to protein bars to meat substitutes, the stuff is everywhere.
The good news and the bad news
Because the soybean is such an economic powerhouse, it's often in the spotlight. The FDA states that soy is a "complete protein," meaning that it's just as good as meat, eggs, and dairy in fulfilling your amino acid needs. Is this true or has the soybean lobby just leaned on the FDA to say that? And what of the miracle food claims. Are they true?
These, of course, are then followed by the crusaders attempting to bring down the soy monolith. How can their claims be true, too? After all, scientific studies are infallible, right?
Not so much. It's an incredibly difficult topic to get the straight dope on and an incredibly easy topic to manipulate. So, trying as best as possible not to buy into any hype, let's take a look at soy.
The Asian argument
The first argument out of the pro-soy lobby's mouth is, "Look at Asia! They've been eating soy for centuries and they're super-healthy!"
Generalizations aside, this is true, except Asian cultures don't go all Coneheads on the stuff, consuming vast quantities. A 1990 study from Cornell University concluded that the average Chinese diet consisted of between 0 and 58 grams of soy a day with the average being 13 gramsabout half an ounce.
In much the same way that the French can pull off eating creamy cheeses and chocolate and remain thin, the secret to eating anything, healthy or decadent, is moderation.
Above and beyond any miracle cures, it's important to remember soy's primary function in most people's diets: to provide a lean, meat-free protein. How well does it do this? According to the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), it does just fine.
In 1989, the FAO/WHO developed the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, a method of measuring protein values in human nutrition. Eggs, milk, and soy all score a 1.0, the best possible. Beef scores .92 and peanuts score .52.
So, from purely a macronutrient point of view, soy looks to be good stuff. Yet, for some reason, we seem determined to ruin it. Sure, the protein is still there in soy sausage or fake bacon or faux chicken, but so are the sodium and huge laundry list of chemicals it took to morph it. A tolerable soy burger has 230 mg of sodium10 percent of the recommended daily allowance. A bad one, like the Boca Burger All American Classic, has 500 mg. For reference, an average beef patty has about 42 mg of sodium.
So if you're looking for protein, stick to soybeans, tofu, and soy milk and leave the weird meat substitutes alone.
Soybeans are also one of the very few nonanimal sources, alongside flax and canola, of omega-3 fatty acids, which help the body on a variety of levels. So especially for vegetarians, that's worth considering.
Miracles and scares
Most of soy's miracle claims and scares are based on rather flimsy studies. For example, a study in the Archives of Internal Medicine showed that among 24,403 postmenopausal Chinese women, those who ate soy-heavy diets had a 37 percent lower risk of broken bones. That's good news until you look at the findings in a cultural context, as the watchdog group The Center for Science in the Public Interest points out in their newsletter, Nutrition Action. American women consume considerably more dairy than Chinese women, which has a huge influence on bone strength. Furthermore, they're already more prone to hip fractures, so the study is moot.
As for studies indicating soy can lower LDL "bad" cholesterol levels, a review in 2005 sponsored by the federal government's Agency for Healthcare Research Quality showed that to see a measly 3 percent reduction, one had to eat a pound of tofu a day.
As for the scares, the much-ballyhooed 1985 USDA Trypsin Inhibitor Study showed that rats on a primarily soy diet had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. It's all really scary until you learn that a rat's pancreas has a sensitivity to dietary protease inhibitors, a substance in soy that inhibits digestion of proteins. Humans have no such sensitivity. In other words, rat pancreases and human pancreases are different enough to bring the study into question.
It just goes back and forth like this.
Isoflavone of the month
One thing everyone agrees on is that soy is loaded with isoflavones, an organic compound that is thought by some experts to be a tool in treating cancer. There have been studies that suggest the isoflavones in soy may help prevent prostate cancer, hot flashes, osteoporosis, and brain aging. So why not consume as many isoflavones as you can? Well, there's a downside.
Isoflavones are a type of phytoestrogen, a chemical produced in plants that acts like estrogen when introduced into animal bodies. With this in mind, a 2001 Canadian study and a 2006 California study suggest that women with a high risk of breast cancer be mindful about the amount of soy they consume. There are also several studies that suggest it's a bad idea to give infants soy formula due to the isoflavonesbut before anyone freaks out, there are also several studies that say soy formula isn't a problem at all. You just can't win.
How much is too much?
Before just giving up on soy because you just can't be bothered with the data, consider this alternative: moderation. The Center for Science in the Public Interest suggests limiting soy so that you ingest about 50 to 70 milligrams of isoflavones a day. That's one or two cups of soy milk or 6 to 9 ounces of tofu. That should be enough to tap the benefits without overdoing it.
But also keep in mind that because soy is such a huge industry in the United States, manufacturers can get it cheap, so they find ways of shoving it into everything. Whenever you're buying some kind of processed food, read the ingredients. You're probably eating more soy than you know.
Even if there weren't concerns about soy, this would still be a good number to shoot for. Regardless of whether or not a food is the miracle nutrient of the moment, excess never works. If you focus on one thing too much, you're neglecting a myriad of other important nutrientsthe balance of which will make for great health.
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12 Teas to Brew Up Better HealthBy Joe Wilkes
Herbal teas have been used for centuries in almost every culture in the world, both as a social beverage and as a medicinal treatment. We don't recommend tea as a substitute for prescribed medication or the advice of a doctor, but some teas have been anecdotally, and in some cases, scientifically proven to have some excellent health benefits. And with zero calories, and in most cases, zero side effects, it might be worth checking out some of these herbal wonders. Again, though, some teas have scientific evidence to support their claims, and some have only old wives' tales. You should consult with your doctor or a medical professional before treating any illness or symptom with anything, including tea.
- Chamomile. Its Greek root and Spanish name, manzanilla, both mean "little apple." And a cup or two of chamomile a day might keep the doctor away as well. Regarded as cure-all for centuries, chamomile has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties, and is also a mild sedative. Herbalists recommend it for treating symptoms of everything from colds, cramps, and digestive, liver, and gallbladder problems to depression, anxiety, and insomnia.
- Fennel. A tasty vegetable in salads and sautés, fennel also makes a great tea for an upset stomach. It helps protect the liver from toxins and also helps reduce discomfort from cramps, bloating, and irritable bowel syndrome. It can also provide upper respiratory relief for bronchitis and asthma. And, it is gentle enough to be given in small amounts to colicky infants (although, as always, consult your doctor first).
- Ginger. How many times have you been shopping with your spouse and one of you has athlete's foot, the other one has menstrual cramps, and there's only room in the cart for one more item? Don't call the divorce lawyerget ginger tea! It is effective for both of those maladies (although you have to soak your athlete's feet in it for its antifungal properties) and it also can alleviate symptoms of nausea, morning and motion sickness, headaches, and inflammation from arthritis.
- Ginkgo. Ginkgo biloba has been famously associated with increasing blood flow to the brain, helping memory. It also increases blood flow to other parts of the body, which can give both partners a little boost in the bedroom.
- Hawthorn. Not only a beautiful plant to look at, it can also be good for your heart. Hawthorn has been used for years in Germany to regulate blood pressure, aid in recovery from heart attacks, and as a treatment from everything from anxiety to hemorrhoids.
- Hibiscus. The herb that gives Celestial Seasonings' Zinger teas their zing. This tart herb is rich in vitamin C and is thought to help lower blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Peppermint. It freshens your breath, and it can also freshen your gastrointestinal tract. Peppermint can be used to ease symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome, may help dissolve gallstones, and help with congestion, allergies, and stress.
- Rosehip. Another tangy tea like hibiscus, and like hibiscus, it's high in vitamin C. It also is believed to help bladder ailments and may have anti-diarrheal properties.
- Senna. This is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter drugs used to aid constipation. It stimulates the colon and as a tea has a gentle laxative effect.
- Slippery Elm. The thick mucilage from the inner bark of the slippery elm tree has been used by Native Americans for centuries to help soothe the digestive tract. Opera singers have also found its coating properties useful in alleviating sore throat symptoms.
- St. John's Wort. In Germany, this herb is prescribed 20 times as often as Prozac to aid mild depression, insomnia, anxiety, and stress. Its effectiveness is debated among medical circles, but some people swear by it, and it appears to have few, if any, side effects.
- Valerian. Referred to by some as herbal Valium, valerian tea can be drunk to aid insomnia, nervousness, menopausal symptoms, and menstrual discomfort. A word of warning, though. Some drinkers say that too much valerian tea can actually make you more nervous, so use sparingly until you know how it affects you.
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